Dr. Jennifer Raff is an assistant professor at the University of Kansas, in the department of Anthropology. She studies the genomes of contemporary and ancient peoples in order to uncover details of human prehistory. You can learn more about her scientific publications and credentials at her CV. She is also interested in many topics involving public science literacy (including vaccination, genetics, race, personal ancestry testing, and pseudoarchaeology) which you can read about on this blog. You can also follow her Twitter and public Facebook pages, as well as the writing she does for Forbes and other publications such as The Past and The Curious. Colin McRoberts is a lawyer by training, but he left his litigation practice to become a consultant. Today he is one of the owners of Vasher McRoberts LLC, a small firm focused on improving clients’ negotiations. He has a special interest in irrational thinking, and particularly how it affects negotiation and other types of communication. You can read more about him at his personal website or his company’s home page. You can also find him on Twitter and LinkedIn. You can see some of his work on Wired and in Aeon Magazine.
Muay Thai, boxing, Brazilian jujitsu, and MMA? Cage fighting. That sounds awesome! You are one bad chica! Keep up those posts!
Are you related to Rudolf Raff?
He’s my former father-in-law (hence the name), and has been a scientific mentor to me since I was a teenager. Amazing person.
Are you originally from Texas?
On your Vita page: it should be Principal Fellow, not Principle.
Thanks for catching that.
In a кедровый (tiny) nutshell, what’s your take on ‘The Stoned Ape’ as described by Terrence McKenna, or more recently (and controversially on TEDx!) Graham Hancock?
How’d you get interested in martial arts?
If I had my daughter to raise all over again,
she’d be a mat rat as soon as she could walk.
My father got me interested 🙂
I very much enjoy your writing. I have only just found you from another blog. I admire the way you positively take constructive criticism and use it to improve your post.
I will follow your intelligent and cogent posts with interest.
I appreciate it!
This is an excerpt from a weekly “word focused” email newsletter I get. If, by any chance, this word is not already part of your vocabulary, you might want to add it. 🙂
“Agnotology is the study of culturally induced ignorance.”
The list, World Wide Words, is by Michael Quinion and this is his website address:
Love it! Thank you 🙂
There is a lot of FDA issues running around right now. Here is one of the latest from Hpost.com – http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/18/nuvaring-blood-clots_n_4461429.html. There are many angles to take with these stories, I would love to hear from you any angle you choose to write about on this vast topic(s).
I found you today because a friend shared your most recent vaccine post. I am so happy to have found you. I look forward to catching up on what I’ve missed, and to seeing more to come. I am not in the scientific field, but consuming information and gaining knowledge is my passion. My interests have turned toward genetics in recent years, due to both familial colon cancer (Lynch has not been confirmed; neither aunt’s samples were tested) and an extremely rare form of spontaneous, recurrent OHSS for myself (suggested that this may be caused by a mutation on the FSHR gene, but testing to confirm is not covered by my insurer, so I wait until I can afford such a test for the sake of my own daughters). Finding your blog about vaccines in my facebook newsfeed this morning and then discovering that your passion for science led you to study genetic history has turned what was otherwise a pretty crappy morning, into a refreshing one.
Thank you for being you.
Thank you so much for your kind words!
just read your vaccine article. what you said makes some sense but why is my unvaccinated child a threat to a child thats supposed to have the best defense against those deadly diseases? Isn’t that why the child got the vaccine in the first place? To protect the child from the virus? Just asking. Make sure what doing and saying ethical. Im not a religious person but messing with genetics is a slippery slope. You might think your doing the right thing but what are the interests of the people funding your research? Whats their endgame?
My research is mostly funded by the National Science Foundation, which funds basic research (http://www.nsf.gov/). I think the rest of your questions have been answered several times over in the comments on the post!
In case you didn’t click, I’ll explain. This isn’t like a car seat, where only your own kid is at risk. Your unvaccinated child is a bioweapon aimed at: babies (too young for certain shots), chemo patients, other immunosuppressed adults, and, of course, people who got the vaccine but for them it simply didn’t “take”. (That’s between about 5% and 30% depending on which vaccine.) These people did the best they could. We can protect them by making sure their risk is minimized, by vaccinating ourselves.
I think the question you are asking Conspiracy Nut is can science be corrupted for the purposes of controlling humans? Yes? No?
You are in a lab and claim you are unbiased. Give me a break.
yeah, you are in a lab and just giving and “honest opinion”. yeah, I trust you. LOL
Anonymous, Wendy: I’m giving an informed opinion BECAUSE I work in a lab and I understand how science works. That article you’re spamming my “About me” page with is pure pseudoscientific nonsense…it doesn’t even link to the study it claims to be reporting on!
Do you have children?
I prefer to keep details about my family private. I’m sure you understand.
my simple question for you- prevention is better than cure but why do most doctors stay in their clinic/hospital and work on just cure. Thomas edison also raised this matter in one of his quotes – ‘The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will interest her or his patients in the care of the human frame, in a proper diet, and in the cause and prevention of disease.’
Your response will be well appreciated.
I think your question would be better directed to a physician.
If you are not a physician, why/how are you even qualified to discuss either side of the argument regarding vaccination?
She’s qualified because she provides answers to doctors about the mechanisms of a disease. Based on this doctors can design a treatment, or recommend preventative measures.
I think that the answer to your question is that, although prevention is undoubtedly better than cure, prevention is much harder. The only really effective preventative is vaccination.
You mention diet, but anyone who follows that field knows that advice is chaotic -see, for example, “We know little about the effect of diet on health. That’s why so much is written about it”
About all you can say about diet is (a) don’t eat too much and (b) don’t eat the same things all the time. All the rest is fads.
The sad fact of the matter seems to be that the biggest factor influences on whether you get ill or not are outside our control -partly sheer luck, and partly genetics.
Your vaccine post is clearly going viral. It is refreshing to read your perspective. What a boost of information for those who are confused about the misinformation! Parents making decisions are scared. It is my hope that those who are making vaccine decisions or choose not to vaccinate will trust science and history over the lies they are told.
Thanks! I hope the same thing.
I enjoy this page and if its purpose was to bring the rational and irrational in proximity, it has succeeded admirably. I trust the slings and arrows directed at you do not faze you. At my age Wu Style Tai Chi is about all I can muster. I do enjoy bringing my telescope to Sci-Fi and Fantasy Conventions and try and show that factual information can be breathtaking too.
Thank you! No, I expected the criticism. It’s worth it if I can help people become more scientifically literate.
Where did you get the sick Science club picture with the crossed pipettes?
This guy! http://www.coroflot.com/grantsquiers/profile
Look what popped up! I’d be interested to know your thoughts on this rebuttal. http://www.livingwhole.org/dear-parents-are-you-being-lied-to/
Why oh why is there such a plethora of information that seems to contradict itself? I sent your article to an anti-vaxxer and she sent this link back.
It’s been extensively debunked in the comments section of both recent posts, so I’m not going to go through it again here.
Can you email me at David.Crowe@theinfectiousmyth.com so I can set up an interview?
Hi! I just read your vaccine article, which was really interesting. In one of my psychology classes we went through the horrors surrounding the MMR vaccine and the incredibly flawed study that caused it. I’m currently studying physics, but genetics is horrifically interesting and I look forward to better educating myself and reading more of your blog!
Thanks! Please let me know if I can explain anything more clearly. Do you blog about physics at all?
I do, I’m currently doing a physics degree and find it utterly fascinating. I’m trying to get stuck into some more physics articles now without the distraction of exams!
Do you receive funding from any pharmaceutical companies?
Dear Jennifer I read your article on Huffpost and really appreciated it.Then I read someone attacking you on Facebook and I replied and defended science against homeopathic medicine instead of vaccination. I was thoroughly attacked for my note.
They said you are a techinician..:) I said no, you have a mile long REsume and published scientific papers.. . thank you for the article.
Haha, well, there’s no shame in being a technician. Technicians are incredible and valuable contributors to science, and they don’t get nearly as much credit as they should. I was one about 6 years ago, before I went on to grad school–but you’re right, I’m not one now.
Thank you, and I’m very sorry about the negativity directed your way.
In your article https://violentmetaphors.com/2014/03/25/parents-you-are-being-lied-to/
Can you provide your thoughts on circumcision? After AAP updated their stance and guidance in 2012 it should be something considered a medical benefit. We are fighting the anticirc activists who are providing misinformation and guilt saying that parents are mutilating their children. In fact circumcision has many medical benefits and our tax dollars are being spent in the PEPFAR to help circumcise Africa because of medical needs. Those are clear signs we need to incorporate it into standard care and medical checklists for newborn boys.
I haven’t read enough of the science to feel comfortable blogging about this subject.
I am inspired that this blog attracting so much interest in the topic of pseudoscience, and I’m also hopeful that the new education standards in this country will move us away from the epidemic of pseudoscience that is rampant in our culture today. The Next Generation Science Standards focus heavily on developing critical thinking skills in our young people. These standards are focused in 4 main areas –
1. Ask Questions
2. Construct Explanations
3. Engage in argument from evidence
4. Obtain, evaluate and communicate information
If we can get teachers and students to be fluent in these practices, we are all in for a better future and one that is truly grounded in science to address issues like vaccines in the realm of scientific thinking.
I think that’s great. We need to shift science education’s emphasis away from “these are the facts” to “this is how science works and this is what we currently know.”
I couldn’t agree more. Memorization only teaches what others have thought, in the past. This is constantly aiming behind the curve, and falls back on the reliance purely on authority to validate a claim.
Shees you’d probably beat the crap out of me.
Dear Dr. Raff,
I just read your article on vaccines and it’s awesome! May I translate it to Spanish (I’m from Mexico, currently living in Argentina). Please contact me!
Please email me: jenniferraff (at ) utexas (dot) edu
Jennifer, I love your writing and think you should do joint webcasts and Youtube videos with intros by Bill Nye and Neil DeGrasse Tyson! You have clarity, balance, objectivity, a great breadth of knowledge…and your writings are a delightful compelling read. Thank you for doing science such a great public service!
Thank you so much for your kind words!
Totally agree with Johns
Thank you so much for your continuous work to educate people. I am fully vaccinated myself and planning on vaccinating my children, though with the immunization programm in my country – it’s not as extensive as the one in US.
But I do have a question. Honestly I’ve gone through the plethora of comments – some more entertaining than others – in at least one of your articles but I haven’t found a scientific answer to this. I understand there are different strains of viri and bacteria. Measles, polio etc. Do they ones in MMP vaccine mutate quickly, are there many strains of them? Are some of them more or less dangerous, or contageous? And my most important question really is, are the vaccines attuned to compensate for these strains if they do mutate?
These questions were raised after reading https://sites.google.com/site/vaccineillusion/polio-and-rotavirus
not sure how valid you think this site is?
Again, thanks for your efforts.
Your post about vaccines was run in Aftenposten, one of Norways most read newspapers today, translated to Norwegian. Thank you for an excellent article.
Thanks for your work. Both in academia and with this blog. It is nice to know that there are scientists out there who like MMA and practice it too. I am headed back to school to pursue microbiology and I train 10th planet JJ. There is nothing like critical thinking, BJJ and biological science. Except for the other sciences; or my soon to be PhD girlfriend, she inspires me to train and study hard. I can’t wait to explore this blog between Dean Lister and Ryan Hall instructional videos.
I nominated you for an Inspiring Blogger award. Congratulations!! Check it out at: http://urbandoctormom.com/2014/07/04/the-inspiring-blogger-award/
When people like Bill Gates push vaccinations one day and speak of population control the next I have no choice but to question the industry. I am all for keeping our children safe and I underatand the underlying need for immunization, but do you not think the program could be jacked by those who believe the world is over-populated? I have read publications by heads of pharm companies and previous WHO leaders where they openly advocate culling the population 90%. Does that raise a red flag in your opinion?
“I have read publications by heads of pharm companies and previous WHO leaders where they openly advocate culling the population 90%. Does that raise a red flag in your opinion?”
Do share. Please provide the links to those publications.
Mostly what I have read is that when women get an education and know that their children have a chance to live to adulthood they no longer have a dozen kids, hoping a few will live to adulthood. My own grandmother was from a family of five kids, but both brothers died before they started first grade.
Do you seriously want us to go back when two out of five kids in a family never get to grow up?
Ms Jennifer Raff, I ‘ve read your articles and I admire your job. Are you a biologist? Because I study biology and I’m very interesting in antropology and genetics and I wonder if I can occupy with these!
Thank you! I am both a biologist and an anthropologist. There’s a lot of cross over between the two fields, so I got a dual doctorate in both.
Your article on vaccines has some huge holes not the least of which is you post no science or fact just your opinion which does not jibe with the facts. Please address, these facts and write an article on the legal process which has been set up and used numerous times to recover for the damages caused.http://vran. org/about-vaccines/general-issues/doctors-speak/the-truth-behind-the-vaccine-cover-up/
Hi Anonymous! I agree, it’s a terrible thing to not cite evidence when you’re talking about scientific matters. Did you happen to see those blue words in every paragraph of my blog post? Those are hyperlinks. If you click on them you’ll find references for every fact that I cite in that article.
As for the article you request on the legal process, I’m not a lawyer nor do I have any legal training, so I don’t feel qualified to write on it. Instead I asked Colin, who IS a lawyer (got his JD from Harvard), to write an article discussing the vaccines court–exactly what you requested!
You can find it on my blog here: https://violentmetaphors.com/2013/11/22/why-anti-vaxers-hate-the-nvicp-and-just-what-is-it-anyway-by-colin-mcroberts/
Hope that answers all your concerns.
Jennifer – I have been following your blog for a few months now, since you provide credible sources and a fresh scientific perspective. I would be very interested if you were to blog about the most recent “Anti-GMO” craze. I am so tired of seeing people spouting “NO to GMO” without citing any credible sources or facts. And it’s getting worse by the day. I do not have a masters or a PhD, but I do understand the scientific method and it is so frustrating seeing the pseudoscience behind their arguments and how it gets passed along and mutated and carried by the lemmings.
Thank you so much! I have written a bit about GMOs, but I do intend to write more extensively on this topic when I can. Stay tuned!
Dr. Raff, I deeply appreciate your work in this blog. It’s heartening to see someone explain actual science so very clearly.
Thanks, and keep up the great work!
From a fellow (genome) biologist. I’m just reading your post via IFLS and I felt obliged to say: thank you. Thank you for putting your time aside to do it, thank you for making sure it was accessible to anybody, and thank you for linking every shred of evidence you mention.
I hope you’ve saved a few lives. Keep up the good work!
Deeply appreciated. I just think that if we don’t take the trouble to explain science to people ourselves, the voices of pseudo-scientists will dominate the dialogue.
Outstanding blog. You have a new follower
PLEASE READ THIS…EXTREMELY IMPORTANT! I just read a lengthy article you wrote abt vaccines. I do agree there is benefit to many of the long standing vaccines, like mmr, polio, etc. I have been a Community Health Nurse for 12 years, so I can say that I do have an educated, scientific background.
In 1996, I heard abt this chickenpox vaccine, and since I never had the disease, and often had to move my shingles patients to another nurse, I decided to research this vaccine. So I did, and then decided to get it. Within 14 days, I developed back pain. That pain gradually progressed, ( all the while in PT,) to the point of unbearable. I was sent to the hospital by my MD, and within 20 min. of being there, I was paralyzed from the waist down! All due to the Varicella Virus going to my spinal cord and leaving a 4 inch long, excrutiating lesion! Long, long story short, if I had researched, ” Transverse Myelitis” associated w the Chicken Pox Vaccine, I would NEVER have gotten this vaccine! It changed my life forever!
When I read your article, and it spoke of the ” MILD SIDE EFFECTS” assoc. w vaccines, I dare you to spend even 1day paralyzed, and tell me how ” mild” it feels! There are, in fact, so many VACCINE INJURIES in this country that the government has set up a VACCINE ADVERSE EVENT REPORTING SYSTEM…..VAERS, to be exact! While you ask people to research how great these vaccines are, to be fair, why don’t you educate YOURSELF on the injuries they do cause!
That is terrible! How often does that severe side affect happen? How common is transverse myelitis? Can it also be caused by actually getting a viral infection?
Also, how did your claim with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program go? I am checking the statistics from 2006 to 2014 and see that there were twenty five compensated claims during that eight year period, out of at least 82 million doses. I can assume your case is one of the twenty five.
Vaccines –Research https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=sf4fByWinng
Why do you think a YouTube video is a substitute for evidence? Especially one with this breathless title:
News In Two Minutes – Vaccines Metals and Aborted Fetuses – Islamic State Oil Attack – Flu Deaths
I landed on your web page while I was surfing on the internet.
Thanks for the helpful articles.
I liked reading them.
I am running the I.A.C – Inscribink Authors’ Circle. We are a developing website with 10K+ followers on Facebook.
Would you be interested in sharing one of your articles on our website, with as many links as you wish in it?
Or, would you be interested in being one of the writers on our new website project?
Thanks for considering. Let me know if you have any questions.
P.S. (Your article must be not be published before.)
Founder of I.A.C
FYI, you’re being trolled by Nat Stuckey, a.k.a. NicksTaxFree, at the Adask blog.
The game being played on you consists of running you around to exhaustion, and severely diluting the public record of your inconvenient message at the blog, with an avalanche of increasingly frivolous Q&A.
Then, having driven you out, the patriotards will declare victory and get back to business as usual as if you were never there, your contribution being effectively lost in the avalanche which you helped create by feeding the troll.
This technique of censorship has been employed before at the Adask blog using the same troll under 20+ usernames.
That’s me, not Jennifer–I’m just an occasional guest author on her blog, so use the URL as my own when I comment. Thanks for the heads-up! I’ll probably keep up the conversation there, because I think there are positive aspects to it (as I’ll discuss in a future post here, I hope), but I’ll do so with my eyes open. Much appreciated.
Awesome Blog Jennifer!
As a Biologist (Genetics) who is now working in the field of clinical research, I highly appreciate your blog which sums up funded scientific knowledge in a way everybody can understand.
Keep on writing!
You won a new follower here in Austria. Greetz from Europe!
Thank you so much, Daniela!
You’re making a valuable contribution over at the “Adask Law” blog, especially toward the discrediting of a paradigm of dangerous nonsense with a long track record of putting people in prison. I hope you will continue with whatever input you are able to make there. This involves two prerequisites.
Not giving Adask an excuse to ban you because you allowed yourself to get provoked into a pattern of commentary that Adask can plausibly construe as personally insulting.
Not getting discouraged by the apparent non-reception of your corrective input. Be assured that your contribution is having an effect among those who need to see it. There are reasons why the comment sections of that blog are not representative of the overall readership’s opinions (or even the opinions of the commenters themselves).
Thanks for helping people.
Thank you. I think there’s a real moral value to pushing back on dangerous irrationality, and just as you say, some of those “sovrun” ideas really hurt people. (I’ll give Alfred credit, though, for not taking advantage of people by selling his ideas in pamphlets or seminars–those are the crooks who really damage people.) And I completely agree that it’s not obvious whether such contributions are having any good effect. I consult in negotiations for a living, and I often remind clients not to expect the other side to say, “Oh, you know what? You’re right! That argument totally convinced me.” It’s still worth making the argument, even if you get no positive response at all.
Having said that, I really appreciate your encouragement. Thank you!
This site comprises the same “logic” and “science” worldview that says GMO’s are great and won’t hurt you; fluoride (poison) in your water is good for you; mammograms (radiation) can’t cause cancer (until they admitted that they do…) and nuclear energy will solve all our problems (except for the weapons and the reactor meltdowns and…). Just another part of the same system which currently brings you the NSA, the CIA, ad infinitum. And you get the pleasure of paying for it all… Total insanity.
Please list the articles on this site that have statements about those subjects so that we may read them and create our own opinions. Argument by blatant assertion is not quite adequate for us to believe anything you say.
With the passing of the mandatory vaccine bill in California with hardly any public debate and a bill in the works on the federal level to make it a law in all states what are the ethical restrictions in place to avoid any dangerous outcomes? I do not think the average person subjected to these laws has done all the research for both sides of the argument and those who have attempted to understand the subject on both sides realize the mountain of evidence that must be researched to come to a personal choice for ones own family. Are we suppose to just have blind faith in science? Does science hold all the answers when it comes to morality and human rights? As a scientist can you say with absolute certainty that “the science is in” as Governor Brown has boldly stated? And if you can how can I know you know before doing all the recommended research?
What bill made it “mandatory” in California? SB277 only removed personal belief exemptions for entry into public and private schools. There are other options, and it does not apply to adults.
Also what dangerous outcomes? Please provide the PubMed indexed studies by reputable qualified researchers that any vaccine on the American pediatric schedule has more “dangerous outcomes” than the diseases. One reason that SB277 passed was because of testimony from those dealing disease injury (like the little boy dying from SSPE), and that about one in ten of the Disney measles cases required expensive hospital care. What vaccine causes that much harm?
It’s obvious you have a scientific bias and you’re only interested in belittling anyone who questions science so it’s not worth communicating with you Chris and I wasn’t asking you anyway.
So a scientific bias is bad? Actually it is good to question science, that is how we get better science. You are not questioning science, you are disregarding it in total because you don’t like the answers it gives. What is the alternative to science? Fantasy?
Besides, what kind of morality ignores the real hazards of the diseases? Why is better to have a child suffer fevers, seizures and the possibility of permanent damage from measles, mumps, Hib, polio, etc?
I don’t care you were not asking me, because I am asking you to support your claims.
Nothing but empty rhetoric Chris. I’m not interested in your fear mongering. Science does not over rule reason and morality. That is your fantasy not mine.
“Science does not over rule reason and morality.”
Seriously? Is English not your first language? What kind if reason or morality dictates it is better for a child to get a disease than preventing it?
The only thing that is “empty” is you giving us evidence that any vaccine on the present American pediatric schedule causes more harm than the diseases.
Seriously, why do you hate science? And why do you want children to suffer vaccine preventable diseases? There is a name to those who like to see kids suffer, and it is not complimentary. Just give us the actual verifiable evidence that vaccines are harmful, and we will be persuaded. Stop JAQing off and give us some actual scientific citations.
Or just explain an alternative to science that will not make us laugh.
Imagine an atheist trying to discuss religion with a fundamentalist Christian and all the fundamentalist Christian does is quote bible scriptures. That’s you Chris only with all your biased vaccine studies. When you go down the road of trying to use science to dictate public policy you’re going down a very dangerous road. That is my problem with science. It will eventually diminishes all life down to a petri dish. You and all your social scientist friends want to tell everyone else what they have to do and you’re going to use science for that purpose. You’re trying to play God and I’d just like to let you know you are not God. It’s just your ego’s fantasy of reality and unfortunately you’re not the first and probably won’t be the last. Get off your power trip. I’m fine with Mother Nature being in charge. She has been at it a lot longer then you social scientist.
First off, I am an engineer. I have an an adult son with several medical issues, who as a toddler had seizures from a disease before its vaccine was available. He has had open heart surgery. His health was not helped by wishful thinking, religion or any other fantasy: it was helped by real medical science.
“When you go down the road of trying to use science to dictate public policy you’re going down a very dangerous road.”
So you want to also abolish the structural codes for buildings, bridges etc? They are all based on science. How about the treatment of the water that comes out of your kitchen faucet. That comes from science, as does the treatment of the waste water that goes down your drains. Road speed limits are set based on science, school zone speeds are set low because impact forces go up with the square of the velocity.
Public health policies are based on science out of necessity. You cannot ignore that reality.
“I’m fine with Mother Nature being in charge. She has been at it a lot longer then you social scientist.”
Nature does not care whether you live or die. There is no such thing as a “Mother Nature.” If you want to ignore reality, and the science behind it, then step away from that keyboard, remove all your clothing, go outside and walk until you see no more civilization. See how well you do.
Your deity of choice gave you a brain, learn how to use it. You can start by figuring out the difference between reality and fantasy.
So all children are subject to all vaccines because your child got sick? Fabulous logic. His medical treatment was chosen. Science that is chosen is a lot different then science that is mandated.
I can choose not to use your bridges, your buildings, your sewer system, or drink your water. Nobody is forcing me to use them Children are being forced to inject dozens of doses of foreign matter into their bloodstream.
There is no such thing as Mother Nature? Funny because I walked outside today and the sun was still there. Are you serious? LOL!!!
Regarding walking away from a keyboard, wearing or not wearing clothes, civilization. All choices for the most part. Of course I’d be locked up being naked in public and last I checked they aren’t allowing people to just walk out into the woods and take up roots.
See, your problem Chris is that you depend on science and studies for your reasoning and so you no longer make sense. By the way, was it Mother Nature that gave you a brain or was that science too? Certainly you must believe in evolution don’t you?
“Children are being forced to inject dozens of doses of foreign matter into their bloodstream.”
Where? How? And what vaccine is given intravenously?
“Funny because I walked outside today and the sun was still there. Are you serious? LOL!!!”
So how young were you when you left school? Do you think that particular star is sentient and cares about you?
“Certainly you must believe in evolution don’t you?”
Well, at least I understand it. You are providing some interesting insight into the thinking of those who do not understand public health policy and social responsibility.
It’s been fun Chris. I’m finished talking with you. Bye!!!